In a credential society such as Canada university degrees, college certificates, and trade school diplomas are essential for social and economic success. Too often social economic status, race, religion, class, and family values have been barriers to post-secondary education. In his classical study of Canada society, Porter argues that more than ever “education means opportunity” (Porter1965, 167). Income is identified by Porter as one of the enduring barriers to education. As the ninth strike by Quebec students since 1968 indicates, income and student debt continues to be a major flashpoint in post-secondary education. In this paper, I will examine the rising costs of education and changing university funding in Canada. While Porter identified income as a major barrier to education, I will also examine the current debates on gender and educational participation. Are boys in academic trouble? Has the class room and teachers become anti-male? What, if anything, can be done to address this perceived or real problem?
|Keywords:||Credential Society, Post-secondary Education, Gender Participation, Rising Tuition and Fees, Provincial Funding, Gender Barriers, Underachieving Boys and Education|
Associate Professor of Sociology, Department of Sociology, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada